Field-Scale Demonstration of PFAS Leachability Following In Situ Soil Stabilization

Paper Published in ACS Omega 2022

A Paper published in ACS Omega 2022 demonstrates PFAS leachability following in‑situ soil stabilization.

This field-scale validation is summarized comparing the efficacy of commercially available stabilization amendments with the objective of mitigating per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) leaching from aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF)-impacted source zones.

The scope of this work included bench-scale testing to evaluate multiple amendments and application concentrations to mitigate PFAS leachability and the execution of field-scale soil mixing in an AFFF-impacted fire-training area with nearly 2.5 years of post-soil mixing monitoring to validate reductions in PFAS leachability. At the bench scale, several amendments were evaluated and the selection of two amendments for field-scale evaluation was informed: FLUORO-SORB Adsorbent and RemBind.

Five ∼28 m3 test pits (approximately 3 m wide by 3 m long by 3 m deep) were mixed at a site using conventional construction equipment. One control test pit (Test Pit 1) included Portland cement only (5% dry weight basis). The other four test pits (Test Pits 2 through 5) compared 5 and 10% ratios (dry weight basis) of FLUORO-SORB and RemBind (also with Portland Cement).

Five separate monitoring events included two to three sample cores collected from each test pit for United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 1315 leaching assessment. After 1 year, a mass balance for each test pit was attempted comparing the total PFAS soil mass before, during, and after leach testing. Bench-scale and field-scale data were in good agreement and demonstrated >99% decrease in total PFAS leachability (mass basis; >98% mole basis) as confirmed by the total oxidizable precursor assay, strongly supporting the chemical stabilization of PFAS.